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Synchronic macrophage response and malaria
Hyperhomocysteinemia in malaria
Chitotriosidase activity
Malaria: role of IL12, IL18,TGF-b
Modulation: IL18, IL12 and TGFb
IL18, IL12 malaria
IL12 and malaria
HbC protects against clinical malaria
Lower susceptibility to malaria of the Fulani
HbC Malaria

According to Malaria Clock, the Malaria Clock advocated by Barry Hearn, from January 1, 2004 to December 20, 2006, over 1,152,776,879 people suffered from malaria. Among these people, more than 8.7 million have died. According to this Clock, malaria causes premature death each every 10.5 seconds among pregnant women and under 5 year children. This infectious disease remains a serious public health issue in 90 tropical countries with a population estimated at 2.4 billion people, or nearly 40% of the world population.

Even if malaria does not kill its prey, it leaves scars that may have major impact in its life. Oxidative stress caused by plasmodium during severe malaria could impact on child intellectual performance. Besides the loss of lives and decrease in mental performance, this infection would cause serious economic damage to tropical countries, reducing growth by nearly 1.3% per year.

In malaria endemic areas, 3 beds over 10 in hospitals are occupied by patients infected by plasmodium. Data collected show that malaria is supposed to cause a loss estimated to 10 working days.

Malaria treatment still remains a current issue due to the multiple strains of the chloriquino-resistant plasmodium. According to some of the authors, chloroquine acts on the heme and its polymerization on erythrocytes. In the digestive vacuole of the Plasmodium, the hemoglobin is reduced into amino acids and heme (Fe II). This one, highly toxic to the parasite, is oxidized in hematine (Fe III) and then polymerized into an "inert", non-toxic pigment: hemozoin or beta-hematin. Chloroquine would stop the conversion of the heme. It is believed that the Hematin-Chloroquine complex inhibits the enzymes responsible for the oxidative stress. With these chloroquine-resistant strains, genetic engineering opens new research areas:

  1. Entomologists have been trying to transform the oral stylets and salivary glands of the anopheles so that it will no more be able to suck blood and in case it bites people, it would not be able to digest the hemoglobin.
  2. Research on human genes that can make malaria resistant: HbS, HbC, G-6-PDn, beta-Thal, Homocysteine, chitotriosidase, HLA ...
  3. Genetic Research on plasmodium with the view to develop a vaccine against malaria.

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