Home Abuse microbicides and antibiotic resistance
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Beta-lactamase from clinical isolates  
Identification of beta lactamase
Prevalence of blaSHV genes
Beta-lactamase molecular classes
Helicobacter pylori infection
 
Antibiotics resistence in Burkina Faso
Epidemiology of bacterial resistance
Major Enzymatic Factors Involved in Bacterial Penicillin Resistance in Burkina Faso
   
Epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in Burkina Faso
 
Aetiology of Acute Gastro-Enteritis in Children at Saint Camille Medical Centre
   
Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Tract Bacteria in Ouagadougou
   
 
 
 
 
 

Bacteriology/ Enzymology: Situational analysis of infectious diseases.

From Thermophilic Bacteria which live in hot springs above 70°C to psychrophilic micro-organisms (cryophiles) which have colonized the glaciers and live below 0°C, there are microbes which have been able to live in all climatic conditions and under high pressures (barophiles), which survive in very salty environments (halophiles), in seabed (chemosynthetic bacteria), in arid areas (polyextremophile bacteria), in acidic areas (acidophiles) and in alkaline areas (alkalophilic).

Currently, with technological changes and globalization, people travel while carrying micro-organisms throughout the world in their planes, boats, and cars. Now in our cities, they are everywhere: water systems, toilets, air conditioners, refrigerators, plates, and even in ourselves. In our deepest viscera, innocuous bacteria help us digest food while pathogens such as Shigella, Escherichia packages, Salmonella, cholera vibrio are source of enteropathy. Others even infect our lungs (bacillus), reproductive systems (HIV, Treponema pallium, Neisseriagonorrhoeae), central nervous system (Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma gambiense, alpha herpes virus, rabies virus) etc. Currently, infectious diseases are responsible for nearly 17 million deaths per year, accounting for one third of all deaths worldwide.
They account for 43% deaths registered in developing countries. This morbidity may go worst, given the climatic changes caused by the industrialization of modern societies, leading therefore to ideal temperature for the growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms on earth.

For some time, several politicians have become aware of this issue and significant progress has been made in the fight against environmental degradation. Similarly, since more than 20 years, major renovations have been made in antibiotic therapy. However, drawbacks and consequences of this type of therapy are the development of more and more resistant bacteria, leading therefore to an overuse of antibiotics.

In an effecoratory study conducted at Saint Camille Medical Center of Ouagadougou there are: 335 stool culture, 1878 cultures of urine, 1180 cultures of tampons, 245 cultures of pus and 43 cultures of other biological materials including blood, skin, milk and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). After their culture and identification, bacteria were exposed to various concentrations of antibiotics in antibiogram to determine the capacity of the antimicrobials to inhibit their growth. Our results show that in Burkina Faso, Proteusspp has become multi-resistant to ampicillin (86.8%), amoxicillin (95.6%) and amoxicillin / clavulanic Acid (94.3%). We also encountered a strong multi-resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin (77.4%), amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (50.6%), amoxicillin (78.2%) and Klebsiellaspp. They have also developed several multi-resistances to ampicillin (89.9%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (42.8%) and amoxicillin (89.9%). Our samples also showed four strains of Klebsiellapneumoniae and one strain of Escherichia coli with blaSHV-11 and blaSHV genes, developing therefore their resistance to antimicrobial drugs. In these samples, we isolated for the first time in Africa, a metallo-beta-lactamase bacteria, a Chryseobacteriumindologenes which hydrolyzes the most commonly used beta-lactamase antibiotics such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillincefalotin, cephaloridin and even the most powerful antibiotics as cefotaxime, cefuroxime and imipenem. Only ceftazidime (third generation beta-lactam) and cefalexin (second generation cephalosporin) could inhibit its growth.

Currently, another issue concerns the multiple strains of plasmodium that have get used to oxidative stress caused by our treatments and which have developed resistance to chloroquine. What about the many HIV strains that have now become resistant to our ARV drugs? These resistances to modern medicines show how fragile our victories are in the fight against infectious diseases, because we are dealing with living species which in their struggle to survive, need to cope with our environment, lifestyle, medical practices, weapons and therapeutic and take advantage of any weaknesses to gain ground.

The alarm: unless a good policy is implemented by all the stakeholders in terms of solidarity between the North and the South to fight against pathogenic microorganisms which do not know national, regional or continental borders because of globalization, unless man rationally and wisely uses synthesized microbicides produced by modern pharmaceutical industries, unless man is aware that transforming the nature by polluting it through wild industrialization, then, this will look like boosting and stimulating the mutation of pathogenic microorganisms, allowing them therefore to get use to our ecosystem and become more virulent. Without an overall sensitization and political commitment to preserve nature, the world is heading unavoidably toward an overwhelming reign of pathogens, the resurgence of infectious diseases, in short, toward the global microbial resistance. If this should really happen, our strongest, most powerful and recent antibiotics and microbicides will become only appetizing substrates and fresh water for our predators that will have become invincible forever.

 

Jacques Simporé

 

Chryseobacterium indologenes